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Home>>North India>>Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh


HISTORY OF UTTAR PRADESH

Area 2,38,566 sq km
Capital Lucknow
Population(2001 census) 166,052,859 Literacy Rate 57.36% Principal Language Hindi and Urdu Main Rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomati and Ghanghara Adjoining States Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttranchal, Delhi, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar Main Crops Paddy, Wheat, Barley, Jwar, Bajra, Maize, Urad, Moong, Arhar, Gram Main Fruits Mango, Guava, Apple Main Minerals Limestone, Dolomite, Magnetite, Soapstone, Gypsum, Glass sand, marble, Granite, Phosphorus, Bauxite, Non-plastic Fireclay Main Industries Cement, Vegetable Oils, Textiles, Cotton yarn, Sugar, Jute, Glassware and Bangles, Metals, Carpets, Brassware, Electronics, Automobiles Main Handicrafts Chikan Work, Zari work, Wooden toys and furniture, Terracotta toys and Brass work

Uttar Pradesh forms a major area of the Northern fertile plain or the Indo-Gangetic plain. This area is said to have been occupied by the group of people referred to as "Dasas" by the Aryans. Their main occupation of these inhabitants was agriculture. Till BC 2000 the Aryans had not settled in this region. It was through conquest that the Aryans occupied this area and laid the foundations of a Hindu civilization. The regions of Uttar Pradesh was said to have been the ancient Panchala country.

The great war of the Mahabharata between the Kauravas and Pandavas was said to have been fought here. Besides the Kurus and Panchalas the Vatsas, the Kosis, Hosalas, Videhas etc formed the early region of Uttar Pradesh. These areas were called Madhyadesa. It was during the Aryan inhabitation that the epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana, the Brahamanas and Puranas were written. During the reign of Ashoka, works for public welfare was taken up. Having rich resources there was active trade within and outside the country. The rule of the Magadha empire brought Buddhism and Jainism into this region. This period witnessed administrative and economic advancement.

The Kushanas exercised their power over this region till 320AD. The territory passed into the hands of the Guptas during whose rule, the Huns invaded this region. After the decline of the Guptas, the Maukharis of Kannauj gained power. During the rule of Harshavardhana, Kannauj was an important city. After his rule political chaso set it. It was amidst this confusion that the Muslims invaded into Utter Pradesh though the society was dominated by the Rajputs, jats and other local chiefs. In 1016AD Mahmud of Ghazni laid his eyes on the wealth of Kannauj.

He was followed by Mohammad Ghori. Throughout the rule of the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughals, the territory progressed. After the Mughals the Jats, the Rohillas, and the Marathas established their rule. By 1803 the British controlled this region and annexed it by 1856. It was in the Uttar Pradesh (The period between 1857-58) that the first struggle for liberation from the British yoke was unleashed. The revolt was suppressed and from then till independence it remained under British dominance. In 1950 the state was organised and named as Uttar Pradesh.

Best known features: Majestic Taj Mahal, monument of eternal love built by Shahjahan in Agra (the capital of Mughal), is the most well-known landmark in UP. There are two ethnographic groups who live there (Mongoloid peoples in the far north near the Tibet boundary and Aryan-Dravidian in the plains and the hill and plateau region of the central and southern region). Hindus consist of more than 80 percent of the entire population and Muslims, more than 15 percent.

Uttar Pradesh has a biggest population of nearly 167 million. The western plain is the most urban region. Agriculture is the most important section of the UPís economy, employing about three-fourths of the work force. UP has the largest production of food grain and oil seeds in India. In addition, UP ranks the first in the production of wheat, maize, barley, gram, sugar cane, and potatoes. The three most important industries of UP are sugar, cotton fabrics and diversified food preparations. Goods carrier equipment, photostat machines, chemicals, polyester fiber and steel tube galvanized sheets are the other big industries of UP.


The third Nawab of Avadh, Shuja-ud-daula (1754-1775 AD) had entered into an alliance with Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, against the Company, In 1784. Mir Qasim was defeated. The British pursued a policy to usurp large territories by coercing and cajoling the Indian rulers and were named as Conquered and Ceded Provinces.

In 1816 AD, the districts of present Kumaon, Garhwal and Dehra Dun were taken from the Gurkha invaders under the Treaty of Sanguli and annexed to British territories forming the North-Western Provinces in 1836 AD. Pursuing a policy of annexing States, Lord Dalhousie ultimately annexed Avadh in 1856 AD. At the same time Jhansi was also annexed.

In 1877 AD, this large territory was called North Western Provinces of Agra and Avadh. The name was again changed in 1902 AD to United Provinces of Agra and Avadh. In 1937 AD it was renamed as United Provinces. After independence, in January 12, 1950, it got its present name of Uttar Pradesh. When India became a republic on January 26, 1950, Uttar Pradesh became a state of the Republic of India. The borders of Uttar Pradesh was modified in 2000 AD after bifurcating Uttarkhand from UP to form Uttaranchal, a new state in the Republic of India.

HOW TO REACH UTTAR PRADESH

The nearest airports are Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur; Allahabad has a major rail junction. By road it is well-connected with all places; The distance from Allahabad to Ayodhya is 167 km, to Chitrakoot 137 km, Agra 433 km, Ahmedabad 1207 km, Delhi 643 km, Bhpal 680 km, Mumbai 1444 km, Calcutta 799 km, Hyderabad 1086 km, Jaipur 673 km, Jhansi 375 km, Lucknow 204 km, Madras 1790 km, Nagpur 618 km, Patna 368 km, Thiruvananthapuram 2413 km, Udaipur 956 km, Varanasi 125 km, Khajuraho 294 km, Lumbini (Nepal) 406 km.

BY AIR - There are four domestic airports in Uttar Pradesh, i.e., in Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Varanasi. However, there is no international airport. Major cities in Uttar Pradesh are connected by air to Delhi and other large cities of India.

BY RAIL - The state is connected with the major cities of India by trains. Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad and Mughalsarai are some of the major railheads that are linked to the rest of the country by express, super-fast and passenger trains.

BY ROAD - Uttar Pradesh is connected to the rest of the country by a good network of roads. Some of the important national highways that connect that state are NH 2, 25, 26, 27, 29, and 45


More Information About Uttar-Pradesh........

 
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