Area 2,38,566 sq km
Population(2001 census) 166,052,859
Literacy Rate 57.36%
Principal Language Hindi and Urdu
Main Rivers Ganga, Yamuna, Ramganga, Gomati and Ghanghara
Adjoining States Himachal Pradesh, Haryana, Uttranchal, Delhi,
Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Bihar
Main Crops Paddy, Wheat, Barley, Jwar, Bajra, Maize, Urad, Moong, Arhar,
Main Fruits Mango, Guava, Apple
Main Minerals Limestone, Dolomite, Magnetite, Soapstone, Gypsum, Glass
sand, marble, Granite, Phosphorus, Bauxite, Non-plastic Fireclay
Main Industries Cement, Vegetable Oils, Textiles, Cotton yarn, Sugar,
Jute, Glassware and Bangles, Metals, Carpets, Brassware, Electronics,
Main Handicrafts Chikan Work, Zari work, Wooden toys and furniture,
Terracotta toys and Brass work
Uttar Pradesh forms a major area of the Northern fertile plain or the
Indo-Gangetic plain. This area is said to have been occupied by the
group of people referred to as "Dasas" by the Aryans. Their main
occupation of these inhabitants was agriculture. Till BC 2000 the Aryans
had not settled in this region. It was through conquest that the Aryans
occupied this area and laid the foundations of a Hindu civilization. The
regions of Uttar Pradesh was said to have been the ancient Panchala
The great war of the Mahabharata between the Kauravas and Pandavas was
said to have been fought here. Besides the Kurus and Panchalas the
Vatsas, the Kosis, Hosalas, Videhas etc formed the early region of Uttar
Pradesh. These areas were called Madhyadesa. It was during the Aryan
inhabitation that the epics of Mahabharata, Ramayana, the Brahamanas and
Puranas were written. During the reign of Ashoka, works for public
welfare was taken up. Having rich resources there was active trade
within and outside the country. The rule of the Magadha empire brought
Buddhism and Jainism into this region. This period witnessed
administrative and economic advancement.
The Kushanas exercised their power over this region till 320AD. The
territory passed into the hands of the Guptas during whose rule, the
Huns invaded this region. After the decline of the Guptas, the Maukharis
of Kannauj gained power. During the rule of Harshavardhana, Kannauj was
an important city. After his rule political chaso set it. It was amidst
this confusion that the Muslims invaded into Utter Pradesh though the
society was dominated by the Rajputs, jats and other local chiefs. In
1016AD Mahmud of Ghazni laid his eyes on the wealth of Kannauj.
He was followed by Mohammad Ghori. Throughout the rule of the Delhi
Sultanate and the Mughals, the territory progressed. After the Mughals
the Jats, the Rohillas, and the Marathas established their rule. By 1803
the British controlled this region and annexed it by 1856. It was in the
Uttar Pradesh (The period between 1857-58) that the first struggle for
liberation from the British yoke was unleashed. The revolt was
suppressed and from then till independence it remained under British
dominance. In 1950 the state was organised and named as Uttar Pradesh.
Best known features: Majestic Taj Mahal, monument of eternal love built
by Shahjahan in Agra (the capital of Mughal), is the most well-known
landmark in UP. There are two ethnographic groups who live there
(Mongoloid peoples in the far north near the Tibet boundary and
Aryan-Dravidian in the plains and the hill and plateau region of the
central and southern region). Hindus consist of more than 80 percent of
the entire population and Muslims, more than 15 percent.
Uttar Pradesh has a biggest population of nearly 167 million. The
western plain is the most urban region. Agriculture is the most
important section of the UPís economy, employing about three-fourths of
the work force. UP has the largest production of food grain and oil
seeds in India. In addition, UP ranks the first in the production of
wheat, maize, barley, gram, sugar cane, and potatoes. The three most
important industries of UP are sugar, cotton fabrics and diversified
food preparations. Goods carrier equipment, photostat machines,
chemicals, polyester fiber and steel tube galvanized sheets are the
other big industries of UP.
The third Nawab of Avadh, Shuja-ud-daula (1754-1775 AD) had entered into
an alliance with Mir Qasim, the fugitive Nawab of Bengal, against the
Company, In 1784. Mir Qasim was defeated. The British pursued a policy
to usurp large territories by coercing and cajoling the Indian rulers
and were named as Conquered and Ceded Provinces.
In 1816 AD, the districts of present Kumaon, Garhwal and Dehra Dun were
taken from the Gurkha invaders under the Treaty of Sanguli and annexed
to British territories forming the North-Western Provinces in 1836 AD.
Pursuing a policy of annexing States, Lord Dalhousie ultimately annexed Avadh in 1856 AD. At the same time Jhansi was also annexed.
In 1877 AD, this large territory was called North Western Provinces of
Agra and Avadh. The name was again changed in 1902 AD to United
Provinces of Agra and Avadh. In 1937 AD it was renamed as United
Provinces. After independence, in January 12, 1950, it got its present
name of Uttar Pradesh. When India became a republic on January 26, 1950,
Uttar Pradesh became a state of the Republic of India. The borders of
Uttar Pradesh was modified in 2000 AD after bifurcating Uttarkhand from
UP to form Uttaranchal, a new state in the Republic of India.
HOW TO REACH
The nearest airports are Varanasi, Lucknow and Kanpur;
Allahabad has a major rail junction. By road it is well-connected with
all places; The distance from Allahabad to Ayodhya is 167 km, to
Chitrakoot 137 km, Agra 433 km, Ahmedabad 1207 km, Delhi 643 km, Bhpal
680 km, Mumbai 1444 km, Calcutta 799 km, Hyderabad 1086 km, Jaipur 673
km, Jhansi 375 km, Lucknow 204 km, Madras 1790 km, Nagpur 618 km, Patna
368 km, Thiruvananthapuram 2413 km, Udaipur 956 km, Varanasi 125 km,
Khajuraho 294 km, Lumbini (Nepal) 406 km.
BY AIR - There are four domestic airports in Uttar Pradesh, i.e.,
in Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, and Varanasi. However, there is no
international airport. Major cities in Uttar Pradesh are connected by
air to Delhi and other large cities of India.
BY RAIL - The state is connected with the major cities of India
by trains. Lucknow, Kanpur, Allahabad and Mughalsarai are some of the
major railheads that are linked to the rest of the country by express,
super-fast and passenger trains.
BY ROAD - Uttar Pradesh is connected to the rest of the country
by a good network of roads. Some of the important national highways that
connect that state are NH 2, 25, 26, 27, 29, and 45
More Information About Uttar-Pradesh........