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Home>>South India>>Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu


HISTORY OF TAMIL NADU

Arjuna_PenanceTamil Nadu which holds in itself a land, a language and a culture existed since the prehistoric times. Human settlement here is said to have existed cotemporary to the civilizations in other parts of world. They existed not as isolated regions of human settlements but was connected through trade. Tamil Nadu was earlier known as Tamilham. The existence of ports such as Arikamedu, Karipattinam, Korkai ware proofs of the Tamilian advancement in establishing relations with other regions of the world. The Tamilians were said to be of Dravidian origin and they originally resided in the north west. With the advancement of the Indo-Aryans the Dravidians were e pushed south. The Sangam literature is the basis of Tamil History, culture and organisations from the 3rd century AD. The Cholas , the Pallavas, the Pandyas and the Cheras had their influence on Tamil Nadu and established their kingdoms. The Pallavas established their reign at kanchipuram in about the 4th century Ad. They held power over the land of the Tamils from 6th and 9th centuries. At the end of the 9th century the Cholas established themselves they extended their empire and established contacts South East Asia.

In the 13 the century the Pandyas dominated. The establishment of the Vijayanagar empire brought the downfall of the Pandyas. This empire ruled till the 16th century preserving and promoting Hindu culture. The Muslim powers influenced this region politically. The Marathas also influenced Madurai and Thanjavur till the advent of the English who wrested power from the French. During the 17th and the 18th centuries, conflicts between the trading companies of Europe for control of the major parts in the east. The British managed to control this region in the 19th century. This region was under the domain of the East India Company and continued till independence after which the three states of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa were formed. The region under the jurisdiction of the Madras Presidency formed into a single unit and named Tamil Nadu in 1969.

Modern History (17th century)Thirumalai Nayak Mahal
The Dutch accomplished a settlement in Pulicat around 1609. The British, under the British East India Company, established a settlement further south, in present day Chennai, in the year 1639. The British took advantage of the petty quarrels among the provincial rulers (divide and rule) to expand their area of power.

The British fought with the various European powers, notably the French at Vandavasi (Wandiwash) in 1760, and the Dutch at Tharangambadi (Tranquebar), driving the Dutch away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to Pondicherry. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. They consolidated southern India into the Madras Presidency.

The nationalist movement in Tamil Nadu was a movement of historical depth. Its starting point is the late eighteenth century. Early manifestations of anti-colonial feeling in Tamil Nadu were the rebellions led by the Poligars of Tirunelveli and Shivagana, and the sepoy revolt at Vellore in 1806.

Some important Chieftains or Poligars of Tamil Nadu, who fought the British East India Company as it was expanding, were Veerapandya Kattabomman, Maruthus and Pulithevan.

Tamil Nadu After Independence
After India gained independence in 1947, Madras Presidency became Madras State, comprising of present day Tamil Nadu, coastal andhra Pradesh, northern Kerala, and the southwest coast of Karnataka.

The state was later divided on the basis of linguistic lines. In 1953 the northern districts formed Andhra Pradesh. Under the States Reorganization Act, 1956, Madras State lost its western coastal districts. The Bellary and South Kanara districts were given to Mysore state, and Kerala was formed from the Malabar district, the former princely states of Travancore and Cochin. Finally, in 1968, when the Central Government imposed Hindi as the national language, the state of Madras was renamed Tamil Nadu, to reduce the resistance against this decision of the government.

Today, Tamil Nadu is one of the most prominent states of India, famous for its tourist attractions and drawing innumerable visitor's to the state.

The People: Tamil, the official state language, is spoken by most of the people. The main religions in the state are Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, and Jainism. Hindu families owe allegiance to a number of sectarian monastic institutions, or maths, of which the most important is the Shankara Math at Kumbakonam. Although Tamil Nadu is one of the most urbanized states of India, it is still a rural land; agriculture is the mainstay of life for about three-quarters of the rural population. Tamil Nadu is rich in handicrafts; notable among them are handloomed silk, metal icons, leather work, kalamkari (hand-painted fabric, using natural dyes), brass, bronze, and copper wares, and carved wood, palm leaf, and cane articles.

HOW TO REACH TAMIL NADU

By Air
The Anna International Airport, 16 km south of Chennai, has flights to/from Sri Lanka, Dubai, Germany, Jakarta, Malaysia, England, Maldives, Saudi Arabia, and Singapore. Most major Indian cities are also connected to Chennai by regular domestic flights. By Rail
The railway station at Chennai has connecting trains to/from all major cities in India.

By Road
The entire state is connected through an extensive network of metalled roads. Ferry services are also available in Chennai. touristplacesinindia can arrange for all local transport during your visit to any of the cities of Tamil Nadu.

Local Transportation: For local transportation local trains, city buses, auto rickshaws and taxis are available. But buses and trains are the most popular public transport for traveling within the state.

So, just plan to visit Tamil Nadu and discover numerous temples, beautiful beaches, diverse wildlife sanctuaries and the richness of other monuments. From the Meenakshi Temple to Rock Fort Temple, from Ooty to Chennai, from Marina Beach to Covelong Beach; from Bharatnatyam to Kanjeevaram Sarees, Tamil Nadu is truly an awesome experience.

More Information About Tamilnadu........

 
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