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Home>>East India>>Meghalaya



Meghalaya is the home of the Tribals especially the Khasis, Jaintias, Mikirs and Cacharis, who are said to have inhabited this region before the start of the Christian era. These tribes evolved out of the migration into north east by the migrants who belonged to the Indo-Chinese linguistic family, the Mon-Khmer and Tibeto-Burman.

The Khasis came from the Khasis and Jaintias. The Tibeto-Burman sub-family was the Naga, Kukichin and Bodo. The Bodos were later divided into small linguistic groups such as Garo, Kachari, Mechs, Dimasa, Tippea, Lalung, Rabha, Chutiyas.
The British occupied the Garo Hills in 1872. The tribal district council was established. The tradition among the tribals was kingship. The earliest Jaintia Raja is said to have ruled from 1500AD. They were influenced by the Hindu culture.

The British influence in Meghalaya extended to the improvement of the landscape, development of roads. The works for progress and development of this region is still continuing after independence and formation of Meghalaya into a state.

The region was included in the united province of Assam for administrative region, which led to the agitation by the local population. The region was accorded full statehood on January 21, 1972.

Geography of Meghalaya

  • Geographically, the State of Meghalaya is also known as the "Meghalaya Plateau".

  • It consists mainly of the archean rock formations.

  • These rock formations contain rich deposits of valuable minerals like coal, limestone, uranium, silimanite etc. Meghalaya has many rivers.

  • Most of these are rainfed and are therefore seasonal.

  • The important rivers in the Garo Hills Region are Daring, Sanda, Bandra, Bhogai, Dareng and Simsang, Nitai and the Bhupai.

  • In the central and eastern section of the plateau the important rivers are Umkhri, Digaru, Umiam, Kynchiang (Jadukata), Mawpa, Umiew or Barapani, Myngot and Myntdu.

  • In the southern Khasi Hills Region, these rivers have created deep gorges and some of the most beautiful waterfalls.

  • The elevation of the plateau ranges between 150 m to 1961 m

  • Districts

Meghalaya currently has 7 districts.

These are:

  • East Garo Hills

  • East Khasi Hills

  • Jaintia Hills

  • Ri-Bhoi

  • South Garo Hills

  • West Garo Hills

  • West Khasi Hills.


Khasi Hills Climate
The average temperature of Shillong varies between 4C in December-January and 24C in May-June months. Shillong's charms are made doubly attractive by its climate on the whole cool and temperate round the year. Cherrapunji is one the places in the world, which receives the highest rainfall, but most of it are in three or four months of the year.

Mainly the climate of the district is mildly tropical in the northern and southern foothills, while in the central upland zone; the climate is temperate and places at medium altitude in the northern, western and southern parts of the district experience sub-tropical climate.

Garo Hills Climate
The West Garo Hills district is mostly hilly with plains fringing the northern, western and the southwestern borders. The most important physiographic feature of the district is the Tura Range, about 50-km long and extends in the east-west direction from Tura to Siju in the South Garo Hills district.

South -West monsoon and seasonal winds, largely controls the climate of the district. The West Garo Hills district being relatively lower in altitude to the rest of Meghalaya, experiences a fairly high temperature for most part of the year. The average rainfall is 330 cms. of which more than two-thirds occur during the monsoon, winter being practically dry. The district have mostly dense tropical mixed forest, and a small patch of temperate forest in the higher parts of the Tura range.

Jaintia Hills District
The South West Monsoon and the North-East Winds directly influence the Jaintia Hills District. The four seasons of Jaintia Hills are: Spring - March and April, Summer (Monsoon) - May to September, Autumn - October and November and Winter - December to February.

During March and April, the atmosphere gradually warms up with the advance of Spring. From the middle of April the temperature starts rising to the maximum in the month of June and then decreases gradually. October and November are the two months when the climate is cool and temperate. After November, the winter season sets in and continues up to the end of February. Rainfall starts by the third week of May and continues right up to the end of September and sometimes well into the middle of October.

Languages of Meghalaya : Garo, Khasi


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